Entrepreneurship is exciting—the thrill of developing a winning product or service, bringing that idea to life, and making life better for your clients—it’s fun. But unfortunately, it’s not free. Long story short: starting a business has a price tag. LLCs are no exception.
If you’re hoping to start an LLC in Maine, you’ll quickly learn that you’ll have a pretty long list of fees for forms, licenses, and applications that you’ll need to get started. Some of those are optional fees, and some are unavoidable. In this guide, we’ll walk you through all the costs you can expect when starting a Maine LLC. By the end, you’ll have a clear picture of how your new business will impact your wallet.
What’s the least amount I have to pay to form an LLC in Maine?
If you’re crunching the numbers before diving right in, good on you! Planning ahead is a surefire way to start your business off on the right foot. But let’s make one thing clear: the phrase “cost to start an LLC” is a bit deceptive. That’s because you don’t want to get stuck focusing on the “day one” expenses of business.
That’s right—when budgeting for start-up costs, you need to account for the costs you’ll pay today and the costs you’ll pay a year or two down the road.
So let’s talk start-up costs and ongoing costs for your Maine LLC. But to keep things simple, here we’ll cover the non-negotiable costs. Later on, we’ll talk about services that are nice to have (but you can live without if you have to).
ME LLC Start-up costs
There are two primary start-up costs in Maine. The most important one (and frankly, the most substantial one, really) is the Certificate of Formation. The fee is $175. You can’t avoid this cost, though. After all, the Certificate is what officially forms your business in the state. Without it, you’re not a recognized business.
Then there are licenses to consider. Maine doesn’t have a general business license that applies to every single entity in the state. Instead, the state allows cities and counties to administer their own licenses. You’ll need to check with your local government office to learn if you need a general license.
Beyond that, there’s a good chance you’ll need to get one or more professional licenses for your business. Since there’s such a large variety of industry-specific licenses, we can’t list all of the different application fees here (the same goes for local licenses). But it’s reasonable to expect that you’ll need to pay an application fee when starting out.
Ongoing costs for an LLC in ME
If your business lasts (and we’re confident it will), then you’ll have several ongoing costs. These include license renewals, annual reports, and taxes. Let’s dig into those prices and fees.
Even though you don’t have to worry about renewing a state general business license, you do need to renew your other licenses. Whether that’s a professional or local license, you can reasonably expect to renew it on a regular basis—and the accompanying fees. Each Maine licensing board has its own policies for renewals, though, so we can’t really list them here. It’s up to you to know what the costs are in your area. When you obtain your licenses, we recommend taking note of the renewal requirements for your industry so none of the fees surprise you.
In Maine, one of the biggest annual costs you’ll have will be taxes. One of the most substantial taxes is the income tax, which largely depends on your tax structure. Businesses taxed as pass-through entities will pay rates between 5.8% and 7.15%; corporation-style entities are taxed at rates between 3.5% and 8.93%.
Then, if you’re involved in the sale of qualifying goods or services, you’ll need to collect and pay the state sales tax. Maine currently charges a 5.5% rate. Last but not least, there might be miscellaneous taxes that apply to your business. For instance, Maine has unique taxes for blueberries, potatoes, milk handling, and more. You can learn more about miscellaneous taxes at Maine Revenue Services.
Most states require LLCs to file some version of an “annual report,” or a document that informs the state about the current standing of your business. This document is usually required in addition to annual tax reports, since it usually includes information about your business address, members, your registered agent, and so on.
In Maine, the annual report process is pretty straightforward. As long as you file the report by June 1st, you’ll maintain your good standing in the state. We recommend filing online since that gets your report processed faster. But regardless of how you file, you’ll need to pay the $85 filing fee.
What are the discretionary costs to form a Maine LLC?
When you’re starting your business, your budget is usually pretty tight. Prioritizing costs can get tricky. The costs we listed above are unavoidable. Well, technically, you can avoid them, but you’ll be heavily penalized if you do. And there’s not much point to spending all that money on starting a business only to knowingly let it be dissolved because you didn’t pay your ongoing costs.
But if you can help it, doing the “bare minimum” is probably not the best way to start your business. There are plenty of discretionary costs you can pay for certain services that make life easier. Here, we’ll dig into those costs—and why you might consider paying them.
1. Name reservation application
Naming things can be a bit tricky; after all, sometimes inspiration is a little lacking! And since Maine doesn’t allow you to use a name that someone else has already claimed, you have to work even harder to pick one that’s unique, memorable, and just right for your business.
It’s a multi-step process, really: you have to brainstorm name ideas, choose just the right words, meet state name requirements, and of course, ensure that the name isn’t already in use (you can check using a Corporate Name Search).
If you’re like a lot of people, you probably want to ensure that your hard work doesn’t go to waste once you’ve created the perfect name. So you have to lay claim to your new business name. You can do so either by filing your Certificate of Formation, or by filing an Application for Reservation of Name. You should only file this form if you’re not yet ready to file your Certificate. Otherwise, you’d be wasting your hard-earned cash. Maine requires a $20 fee for this application, but it protects your name for 120 days. Act quickly, though; Maine does not allow you to renew a reservation, so the 120 days is all you’ll get.
2. Obtaining a Trade Name
Wait—didn’t we just cover business names? Yes. But there’s a distinction: your business name, which you’ll write in on your Certificate of Formation, is the legal name of your business. A trade name, sometimes called a DBA or an assumed name, is like a nickname for your business. For example, your legal name might Joseph Smith, but your friends call you Joe for short. Joe is a perfectly valid name, but you can’t put it on legal paperwork. You’d have to legally change your name to do so.
A Trade Name acts kind of like a nickname for your business; some LLCs and corporations also use Trade Names to establish new product lines or new “businesses” under the LLC “parent company.” But regardless of why you use a Trade Name, if it differs from your legal name, you need to register it before you can use it.
Quick note: Maine requires all Trade Names to be “distinguishable on the record” from all entity names in the state—both trade names and legal business names. So long story short, if you register your Maine Trade Name, you’ll prevent other people from using your name, too.
As a registered entity (i.e., not a sole proprietorship or partnership), your registration process is fairly easy. All you have to do is ensure your name is available to use. Then you can file the Statement of Intention to Do Business form and pay the accompanying $125 fee. Since trade name registrations do not expire, you won’t need to file anything else until you stop using the name altogether. For more information on this registration, check out our guide to Maine Trade Names.
3. LLC formation services
Paperwork is a massive hassle. And unless you’re starting an LLC to help other Maine residents with their paperwork, odds are you don’t want to deal with much paperwork yourself.
The bad news? Paperwork is an unavoidable part of starting a Maine LLC: the Certificate of Formation, the annual report, local and professional licenses—the list goes on and on. The good news? You can hire an LLC formation service to do the pesky paperwork for you.
Of course, there’s some cost involved. And while there are a lot of great LLC formation services, they aren’t all created equal. And they all have different price points.
Many LLC formation services offer a wide variety of packages, with basic options starting at low prices like $39 from Zen Business (one company, Incfile, even offers a starter package for $0). But if you’re willing to shell out some serious cash for comprehensive assistance, you’ll find package prices going as high as $799.
These services are completely optional; you can DIY your Maine LLC formation. But many entrepreneurs find the time saved is worth the money. If you do opt to hire a service, please make sure you take the time to understand what you’re buying. Some services charge one-time fees, and others tack on “free services” that will cost you next year. If you don’t read the fine print, you can get slapped with unexpected service fees. And surprise bills are never fun.
4. ME Registered agent services
Maine law clearly states that every LLC must designate a registered agent to act as a middleman between your business and the state. Long story short, the registered agent accepts service of process (and any other official communication from the state) on your behalf.
Technically, this is another thing you can DIY; Maine allows you to serve as your own registered agent. However, in our opinion, it’s worth the expense to hire a registered agent.
Why? For starters, a registered agent’s address becomes part of the public record; anyone in the state can find that address. That leads to spam mail (sometimes worse). Plus, a registered agent must be present at the registered address during all standard business hours. If you serve as your own, you’d be tied down to your location constantly. A registered agent service prevents those annoyances. A service will also help you keep track of annual filing requirements, license renewals, and more.
These services typically charge an annual fee. For example, annual fees for our top 4 Maine registered agent services range from $99 to $299 per year depending on the service you choose. That said, some offer the first year free if you use them as an LLC formation service.
Quick Note: If you need to later down the line, you can always change your registered agent.
5. Expedited filing fees
In Maine, it usually takes 5-10 business days for the state to process your Certificate of Formation. Granted, that time can vary based on order volume, time of year, and so on. But typically, they’ll approve or reject your Certificate in a week, give or take.
If that sounds like too long to wait, Maine offers two expedited filing options. You can pay $50 for a 24-hour turnaround, or if you’re really in a rush, you can shell out $100 and have your documents processed in just an hour (note: that’s in addition to the $175 Certificate fee). Compared to some states, those are pretty reasonable fees. It might be worth the extra expense to expedite, but it might not. You can let your budget and your timetable be the deciding factors.
6. Business attorneys
Starting a business is a complicated process. And it’s a legal one. We do our best to make the process seem less daunting with guides like this one. But at the end of the day, we can’t write a guide that would cover every single question every business will ever face. That’s because your business is unique.
Business attorneys, however, can talk you through all the nuances of forming and running your business. In many cases, the advice of an attorney can save you thousands by helping you avoid expensive legal mistakes.
However, the upfront costs of hiring a business attorney can be pretty pricey. For example, many attorneys charge per hour, with rates ranging between $150-$350. Others offer “LLC formation packages” for flat rates that fall between $500-$2000. And of course, those fees vary based on the attorney’s experience, location, and so on.
If you’d like to hire one, we recommend checking out sites like Avvo.com. Their database is nearly comprehensive, so it’s a great way to search Maine business lawyers. You can also narrow results by location, cost, overall satisfaction rating, and more. It’s the best place to look to find the right legal consultation for your business.
Long story short: starting a Maine LLC can be a pretty pricey endeavor. If you look at each cost separately, it doesn’t seem too bad (perhaps with the exception of the $175 of the Certificate of Formation fee). But when you add them all up or tack on some additional services, the total price tag grows pretty quickly.
Thankfully, since you’ve read this guide, you know what you’re up against. And sometimes, knowing is half the battle—and now you’re armed with all the information you need to budget the start-up costs so you can start your Maine LLC off on the right foot. We wish you and your new business the best!