A lot of today’s most successful businesses started out as general partnerships. After all, starting a business is simultaneously exciting and overwhelming.
Having a partner to share the load makes it that much easier. And partnerships in Missouri are easy to form, so it’s not surprising that many entrepreneurial teams begin with this entity type. But even though partnerships are easy to form, there are plenty of ducks to put in a row.
In this guide, we’ll walk you through all the essentials to forming a partnership, from the liability risks of a general partnership to business licenses, and more. By the end, you’ll have a clear picture of how to start a general partnership in Missouri.
A (Very Important) Note on Personal Liability
If you talk to a lawyer about your intentions to start a partnership, there’s a good chance he or she will tell you to be really careful. That’s because, from a legal standpoint, a partnership is not legally distinct from the individual partners behind the partnership.
Granted, the business can obtain a bank account using the business’s name, enter contracts, and so on. But the responsibility to uphold those contracts and agreements falls to the partners, not the business.
If your partnership defaults on a loan or is sued for malpractice, you’ll (understandably) have to pay up. But if there’s not enough money in your business’s bank account to pay, your creditors can go after your personal assets. For example, they can lay claim to your car, your house, and your personal savings.
Note: Some states allow for partnership types with some liability protection—and Missouri is one of them. The most common types are Limited Partnerships and Limited Liability Partnerships. That said, there are important nuances to these partnership types that make them troublesome for some entrepreneurs.
If you’re not much of a risk-taker (and that’s totally fine; risky endeavors aren’t for everyone), then a general partnership is probably not the best choice for you. You’d be better off forming an LLC or corporation, which offer near-comprehensive liability protection.
For most small businesses, the LLC is ideal because it offers a lot of ownership flexibility, easy operation, and personal asset protection. If you’d like to learn more about forming an LLC in Missouri, start with this guide.
But if a general partnership seems right for your business idea, then let’s dig in. By the time you’ve followed all the steps in this guide, you’ll have a general partnership that’s set for success.
5 Steps to Form Your General Partnership
If you’re sure that a partnership is right for you, then your business starts as soon as you and your partner get to work. That said, there are 5 key steps you should complete to ensure your business gets off to a good start.
1. Do a ‘partner’ gut check
Starting a partnership can be really exciting, especially if you’re entering business with a lifelong friend or a buddy from college.
But don’t rush into things if you can help it. Some people recommend looking at a partnership like a marriage: it’s a committed relationship that requires give and take on both sides. So you should consider your partnership with a long-term mindset.
For example, ask yourself these questions:
- Do you work well together even in stressful situations?
- Do you agree on how to handle finances?
- Do your strengths and weaknesses complement each other?
- Can you envision still working with them 5-10 years from now?
- Does either partner have a history of malpractice, poor business decisions, etc.?
While you don’t have to do a full-scale background check on your potential business partners, careful consideration can save you headaches down the road. Talking through these issues together (before business begins) ensures that everyone is on the same page.
2. Draft a partnership agreement
In every high-functioning business, everyone has clearly defined responsibilities, compensation terms, and rights—all the way from the CEO to the new hire in training. Partnerships may not have as many people involved, but they still require clear-cut roles.
A partnership agreement clearly defines the rights, privileges, and responsibilities of each member.
Each agreement is unique, but every good partnership agreement includes:
- How ownership is split: Does each partner have an even 50/50 share? Or does one partner have a bigger stake, such as a 60/40 split?
- Management rights: Can a partner make decisions autonomously, or do big decisions require mutual agreement? What decisions are “big enough” to require you to consult each other? Simply put, your agreement should detail who calls the shots, and how.
- Duration of the partnership: Not all partnerships last forever; some plan for their business to be temporary. Others plan for a perpetual partnership. Either is okay, but you should detail it in your agreement.
- How a partner can buy in (or out): As time passes, it’s not uncommon for a business to add or subtract a partner. But there needs to be an official procedure for doing so. Your operating agreement can detail that procedure.
3. Choose a DBA Name (Optional)
When you start a partnership, the business doesn’t have a unique name; it’s just the legal surnames of each partner. But “Jones & Jacobs” isn’t a very descriptive name, right?
That’s why a lot of partnerships choose to use a DBA, or “Doing Business As” name. A DBA allows a business like “Jones & Jacobs” to operate as “World’s Best Cupcakes.” Not only is a DBA name more appealing and descriptive, but a DBA also gives you some new options.
You can open a business bank account, and a name makes your business seem more official. A lot of customers are more comfortable writing a check to a business than an individual.
In Missouri, all entity types are allowed to use DBAs, but the state refers to them as fictitious names. Registration is required, too, but registering your fictitious name will not prevent other people from using the same fictitious name as you. Only legal entity names (LLCs, corporations, etc) are protected.
That’s why, before you actually register your fictitious name, you should ensure that your name is available to use. You can do so by running a Business Entity Name Search. Simply type in the name you’re hoping to use (hit the “exact match” search filter for the best results). If no exact matches pop up, then you probably can use that name.
It’s also helpful to run an internet search to see if someone else is using your fictitious name. There is nothing preventing you from using the same fictitious name as another business in Missouri. But if you’re going for a unique name—which we recommend—then an internet search is a big help.
Once you’ve determined that your name is available for you to use, you’ll need to register it using a Registration of Fictitious Name. You can also file the registration online. But regardless of how you file, you’ll need to pay the $7 filing fee. Maintaining your fictitious name is pretty easy, too. You’ll simply need to renew it every 5 years. That’s all there is to it.
4. Register for taxes
An advantage to a partnership is the fact that partnerships do not pay taxes as a business; instead, the tax burden “passes through” to the individual members of the partnership. The partners pay the taxes.
That said, your partnership still needs to register with the IRS and file yearly paperwork to report the business’s income. That registration also entails getting an EIN. Obtaining this business tax number is easy and free, and if you do it online, you’ll get your number almost instantly.
Your partnership won’t actually pay taxes to the IRS, but you will need to file a form annually (IRS Form 1065). The actual tax burden will come into play when you fill out Schedule C of your individual income tax reports each year. If you have any employees, you’ll also need to pay employment taxes like Medicare, Unemployment, and more.
For a full description of partnership tax requirements at the federal level, check out the IRS’s Tax Information for Partnerships.
In Missouri, the primary tax burden will be your income taxes. As a partnership, you’ll pay those at the individual rates, which falls between 2% and 5.4% depending on your income. Technically speaking, your partnership itself will not pay any taxes; the partners will. That said, the partnership does need to file a partnership return of income form. This document updates the state about how much revenue has entered the state thanks to small businesses, but it does not incur taxes.
If your partnership is involved in retail sales, you will also need to collect and pay the state sales tax. Currently, Missouri has a 4.225% tax statewide, but cities and counties can add an additional charge onto that total. So in some locations, the sales tax can be as high as 10.35%. For more information about sales taxes and local tax rates, look here.
Beyond that, there may be some industry-specific taxes to keep tabs on. For example, Missouri has unique taxes for cigarettes, tires, lead, marijuana, and more. You can learn more about business-related taxes at the Missouri Department of Revenue.
5. Obtain business licenses and permits
Even though partnerships are relatively simple to run, they’re not exempt from the state’s business license requirements. In most locations, there are two primary business license categories: the general business license and industry-specific occupational and professional licenses.
In Missouri, there is not a statewide general business license that every entity in the state needs to obtain to do business compliantly. That said, a lot of cities and counties require general licenses. You should check with your local government to learn what the requirements are in your area. And if you’re doing business in more than one location, you should check the requirements in each area.
Depending on your industry, you may also need to get an occupational or professional license. Missouri has a good number of them. For one thing, the state upholds all licenses required on the federal level. For example, business owners in industries like alcohol and agriculture need to get licenses from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau and U.S. Department of Agriculture respectively.
Missouri also has state-level occupational licenses and permits. For example, there are licensing requirements for real estate brokers, occupational therapists, veterinarians, and more. You will need to do some research to learn which requirements apply to your business. When you’re ready to start that search, check out the Missouri Division of Professional Regulation. If you’d like more personal advice, the University of Missouri has a helpful Extension Business Development Program that can advise you on licenses and more.
General Partnership Pros & Cons
Before you form any business, you’ll want to do some careful soul-searching to ensure that entrepreneurship is right for you. That’s especially true for a general partnership. You’ll need to carefully evaluate the pros and cons before diving in.
General Partnership Pros
- Unlike a lot of business entity types, a general partnership does not require any start-up paperwork or registration fees. You don’t have to submit any paperwork to the state of Missouri. In a sense, your business bursts into existence as soon as you and your business partner(s) say, “Let’s do this!” You can get to work right away.
- Another advantage to a general partnership is the flexibility it provides you. You and your business partners will have a lot more control and leeway when operating your business (especially compared to a corporation). But if you someday decide to convert your partnership into a more official LLC or corporation, it’s easy to do so. The paperwork required is simple.
- Last but not least, you’ll find that your tax burden will be pretty simple as a general partnership. General partnerships file tax paperwork as a business, but they do not actually pay taxes. Instead, the tax burden “passes through” to the partners, who pay taxes at the individual rate for both the federal state levels. In many cases, the individual tax rate is cheaper than the corporate income tax.
(Note: this might not be true if you have extensive income from other sources, pushing you into a high tax bracket). In Missouri, income taxes are relatively low, even if you fall in the highest tax bracket. For more information on general partnership taxes in the state, see Step 4 above.
General Partnership Cons
- The biggest disadvantage to a general partnership is that the partners accept a lot of personal liability. General partnerships do not offer any personal asset protection, unlike corporations or LLCs. We’ll go into more detail about personal liability shortly.
- Let’s face it: sometimes, partnerships just don’t work out. There’s no guarantee that you’ll always see eye to eye with your partners. For example, one partner might lose their passion for the business down the road. Or one partner might sign a contract without consulting you, and you don’t agree to the terms. Members of a general partnership can also be held personally liable for the malpractice of the other partners, which can have potentially disastrous consequences.
There are risks and challenges with a general partnership, but that doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t form one if it actually is the proper route for you. For the right business partners—and with the proper procedures—a general partnership offers exciting, unique opportunities.